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What Perl is?

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Perl Operators

Just like any other language, the operators in Perl can be categorized in the following categories:

Arithmetic Operators

Equality Operators

Assignment Operators

Bitwise Operators

Logical Operators

Quote-like Operators

Miscellaneous Operators

So, let’s go through Perl operators one by one:

1. Arithmetic Operators

As the name suggests Arithmetic Operators are used to doing arithmetic operations like subtraction addition etc.

+ (Addition): It used to add values on either side of the addition operator: \$a + \$b =40

– (Subtraction): It is used to subtract right hand side from left hand side: \$b – \$a =10

* (Multiplication): It is used to multiply values on either side of the operator \$a * \$b =300

/ (Division): It is used to divide the left-hand operand by the right-hand operand \$b / \$a = 3

% (Modulus): It is used to divide the left-hand operand by the right-hand operand and return remainder \$b % \$a = 0

** (Exponential): It is used to perform power calculation \$b ** \$a gives 30 raised to power 10.

2. Equality Operators

These are called relational operator so let’s keep the values of both a and b same as they were in the case of arithmetic operators:

== (equal to): As the name suggests, checks if the value of two operands is equal or not if they are equal it becomes true. In this case \$a == \$b is not true.

!= (not equal to): As the name suggests, checks if the value of two operands is equal or not if they are not equal it becomes true. In this case \$a != \$b is true

< (Less than): This operator checks if the value of two operands is less than each other or not \$a < \$b is true.

<= (Less than equal to): This operator checks that if the value of two operands is less than or equal to each other. In our case \$a <= \$b is true.

Now let’s check string equality operators in Perl, let’s change value as \$a =”nil” and \$b = “abc”

It: It checks if the left wise string argument is less than the right wise string argument. In our case, \$a It \$b is not true.

gt: It checks if the left wise string argument is greater than the right wise string argument. In our case, \$a gt \$b is true.

le: It checks if the left wise string argument is less than or equal to the right wise string argument. In our case, \$a Ie \$b is false

ge: It checks if the left wise string argument is greater than or equal to the right wise string argument. In our case, \$a ge \$b is false.

3. Assignment Operators

Let’s change the value of a and b to previous values of 10 and 30. Perl supports the following Assignment operators:

=: It is an assignment operator. It assigns the value from the right-hand side to the left-hand side, for example, \$c = \$a + \$ b which makes the value of c to 40.

+=: It is called add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to left operand and assigns the value of the result to left operand.

-=: It is called Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from left operand and assigns the value of the result to left operand.

*=: It is called multiple AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand from left operand and assigns the value of the result to the left operand.

/=: It is called Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the right operand from left operand and assigns the value of the result to left operand.

4. Bitwise Operators

& (Binary and): It copies bits to result which are in both operands.

^ (Binary XOR): It copies a bit if it is set in one operand, not both.

5. Logical Operators

Perl contains the following logical operators:

And (Logical AND): If both operands become true then the operator returns true.

OR (Logical OR): If any of the operands is non-zero then it becomes true.

Not (Logical NOT): It reverses the logical state of the operand.

6. Quota Like Operators

Perl supports the following Quota Like operators:

q{}: It encloses a string in single quotes. for example q{nil} becomes ‘nil’.

qq{}: It encloses a string in double-quotes. for example qq{nil} becomes “nil”.

qx{}: It encloses a string in reverse quotes.

7. Miscellaneous Operators

Perl contains the following Miscellaneous operators:

. (Binary Operator dot): It is used to concatenate two strings. If \$a =”nil” and \$b = “def” \$a.\$b =”nildef”.

x (Repetition Operator): It returns a string of repeated left side operand. The number of repetitions is specified by the right-hand side operand. For example: (‘-‘ x 3) gives ‘—‘.

++ (Auto increment Operator): It will increase the value by one. The value must be an integer. For example: if \$a =10 \$a++ gives 11.

— (Auto decrement Operator): It will decrease the value by one. The value must be an integer. For example: if \$a =10 \$a– will give 9.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Perl Operators. Here we have discuss 7 different types of Perl Operators along with respective examples. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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